SENDMAIL(1)                                                        SENDMAIL(1)

       sendmail - Postfix to Sendmail compatibility interface

       sendmail [option ...] [recipient ...]

       sendmail -bp

       sendmail -I

       The Postfix sendmail(1) command implements the Postfix to Sendmail com-
       patibility interface.  For the  sake  of  compatibility  with  existing
       applications,  some  Sendmail  command-line  options are recognized but
       silently ignored.

       By default, Postfix sendmail(1) reads a  message  from  standard  input
       until  EOF  or  until  it  reads  a  line  with only a . character, and
       arranges for delivery.  Postfix sendmail(1) relies on  the  postdrop(1)
       command to create a queue file in the maildrop directory.

       Specific  command aliases are provided for other common modes of opera-

       mailq  List the mail queue. Each entry shows the queue file ID, message
              size,  arrival  time, sender, and the recipients that still need
              to be delivered.  If mail could not be delivered upon  the  last
              attempt, the reason for failure is shown. The queue ID string is
              followed by an optional status character:

              *      The message is in the active queue, i.e. the  message  is
                     selected for delivery.

              !      The  message is in the hold queue, i.e. no further deliv-
                     ery attempt will be made until  the  mail  is  taken  off

              #      The  message  is  forced  to expire. See the postsuper(1)
                     options -e or -f.

              This  mode  of  operation  is  implemented  by   executing   the
              postqueue(1) command.

              Initialize  the  alias  database.  If no input file is specified
              (with the -oA option, see  below),  the  program  processes  the
              file(s)  specified with the alias_database configuration parame-
              ter.  If no alias database type is specified, the  program  uses
              the  type specified with the default_database_type configuration
              parameter.  This mode of operation is implemented by running the
              postalias(1) command.

              Note: it may take a minute or so before an alias database update
              becomes visible. Use the "postfix reload" command  to  eliminate
              this delay.

       These  and other features can be selected by specifying the appropriate
       combination of command-line options. Some features  are  controlled  by
       parameters in the configuration file.

       The following options are recognized:

       -Am (ignored)

       -Ac (ignored)
              Postfix  sendmail uses the same configuration file regardless of
              whether or not a message is an initial submission.

       -B body_type
              The message body MIME type: 7BIT or 8BITMIME.

       -bd    Go into daemon mode. This mode of operation  is  implemented  by
              executing the "postfix start" command.

       -bh (ignored)

       -bH (ignored)
              Postfix has no persistent host status database.

       -bi    Initialize alias database. See the newaliases command above.

       -bl    Go  into  daemon  mode. To accept only local connections as with
              Sendmail's -bl option, specify "inet_interfaces =  loopback"  in
              the Postfix configuration file.

       -bm    Read mail from standard input and arrange for delivery.  This is
              the default mode of operation.

       -bp    List the mail queue. See the mailq command above.

       -bs    Stand-alone SMTP server mode. Read SMTP commands  from  standard
              input,  and  write responses to standard output.  In stand-alone
              SMTP server mode, mail relaying and other  access  controls  are
              disabled  by  default.  To  enable  them, run the process as the
              mail_owner user.

              This mode of operation is implemented by  running  the  smtpd(8)

       -bv    Do  not  collect  or  deliver  a message. Instead, send an email
              report after verifying each recipient address.  This  is  useful
              for testing address rewriting and routing configurations.

              This feature is available in Postfix version 2.1 and later.

       -C config_file

       -C config_dir
              The  path  name  of  the  Postfix file, or of its parent
              directory. This information is  ignored  with  Postfix  versions
              before 2.3.

              With Postfix version 3.2 and later, a non-default directory must
              be authorized in the default file,  through  the  alter-
              nate_config_directories  or  multi_instance_directories  parame-

              With all Postfix versions, you can specify a directory  pathname
              with  the MAIL_CONFIG environment variable to override the loca-
              tion of configuration files.

       -F full_name
              Set the sender full name. This overrides  the  NAME  environment
              variable, and is used only with messages that have no From: mes-
              sage header.

       -f sender
              Set the envelope sender  address.  This  is  the  address  where
              delivery problems are sent to. With Postfix versions before 2.1,
              the  Errors-To:  message  header  overrides  the  error   return

       -G     Gateway  (relay)  submission, as opposed to initial user submis-
              sion.  Either do not rewrite addresses at all, or update  incom-
              plete  addresses  with  the  domain  information  specified with

              This option is ignored before Postfix version 2.3.

       -h hop_count (ignored)
              Hop count limit. Use the hopcount_limit configuration  parameter

       -I     Initialize alias database. See the newaliases command above.

       -i     When  reading  a message from standard input, don't treat a line
              with only a . character as the end of input.

       -L label (ignored)
              The logging label. Use the syslog_name  configuration  parameter

       -m (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       -N dsn (default: 'delay, failure')
              Delivery   status   notification   control.   Specify  either  a
              comma-separated list with one or more of failure (send notifica-
              tion  when delivery fails), delay (send notification when deliv-
              ery is delayed), or success (send notification when the  message
              is delivered); or specify never (don't send any notifications at

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.3 and later.

       -n (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

              Non-default alias database. Specify pathname  or  type:pathname.
              See postalias(1) for details.

       -O option=value (ignored)
              Set  the named option to value. Use the equivalent configuration
              parameter in instead.

       -o7 (ignored)

       -o8 (ignored)
              To send 8-bit or binary content, use an appropriate MIME  encap-
              sulation and specify the appropriate -B command-line option.

       -oi    When  reading  a message from standard input, don't treat a line
              with only a . character as the end of input.

       -om (ignored)
              The sender is never eliminated from alias etc. expansions.

       -o x value (ignored)
              Set option x to value. Use the equivalent configuration  parame-
              ter in instead.

       -r sender
              Set  the  envelope  sender  address.  This  is the address where
              delivery problems are sent to. With Postfix versions before 2.1,
              the   Errors-To:  message  header  overrides  the  error  return

       -R return
              Delivery status notification control.  Specify "hdrs" to  return
              only  the header when a message bounces, "full" to return a full
              copy (the default behavior).

              The -R option specifies an upper bound; Postfix will return only
              the  header, when a full copy would exceed the bounce_size_limit

              This option is ignored before Postfix version 2.10.

       -q     Attempt to deliver all queued mail. This is implemented by  exe-
              cuting the postqueue(1) command.

              Warning:  flushing  undeliverable mail frequently will result in
              poor delivery performance of all other mail.

       -qinterval (ignored)
              The interval between queue runs. Use the queue_run_delay config-
              uration parameter instead.

              Schedule immediate delivery of mail with the specified queue ID.
              This option is implemented by executing  the  postqueue(1)  com-
              mand, and is available with Postfix version 2.4 and later.

              Schedule  immediate  delivery of all mail that is queued for the
              named site. This option accepts only site names that are  eligi-
              ble  for the "fast flush" service, and is implemented by execut-
              ing the postqueue(1) command.  See flush(8) for more information
              about the "fast flush" service.

              This  command  is  not implemented. Use the slower "sendmail -q"
              command instead.

       -t     Extract recipients from message headers. These are added to  any
              recipients specified on the command line.

              With Postfix versions prior to 2.1, this option requires that no
              recipient addresses are specified on the command line.

       -U (ignored)
              Initial user submission.

       -V envid
              Specify the envelope ID for notification by servers that support

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.3 and later.

       -XV (Postfix 2.2 and earlier: -V)
              Variable  Envelope Return Path. Given an envelope sender address
              of the form owner-listname@origin,  each  recipient  user@domain
              receives mail with a personalized envelope sender address.

              By   default,   the  personalized  envelope  sender  address  is
              owner-listname+user=domain@origin. The default + and  =  charac-
              ters  are configurable with the default_verp_delimiters configu-
              ration parameter.

       -XVxy (Postfix 2.2 and earlier: -Vxy)
              As -XV, but uses x and  y  as  the  VERP  delimiter  characters,
              instead of the characters specified with the default_verp_delim-
              iters configuration parameter.

       -v     Send an email report of the first delivery attempt (Postfix ver-
              sions  2.1 and later). Mail delivery always happens in the back-
              ground. When multiple -v options are given, enable verbose  log-
              ging for debugging purposes.

       -X log_file (ignored)
              Log mailer traffic. Use the debug_peer_list and debug_peer_level
              configuration parameters instead.

       By design, this program is not set-user (or group) id.  It is  prepared
       to handle message content from untrusted, possibly remote, users.

       However,  like  most  Postfix programs, this program does not enforce a
       security policy on its command-line arguments.  Instead, it  relies  on
       the  UNIX system to enforce access policies based on the effective user
       and group IDs of the process. Concretely, this means that running Post-
       fix  commands as root (from sudo or equivalent) on behalf of a non-root
       user is likely to create privilege escalation opportunities.

       If an application runs any Postfix programs on behalf of users that  do
       not have normal shell access to Postfix commands, then that application
       MUST restrict user-specified command-line arguments to avoid  privilege

       o      Filter  all  command-line  arguments, for example arguments that
              contain a pathname or that specify  a  database  access  method.
              These  pathname  checks  must reject user-controlled symlinks or
              hardlinks to sensitive files, and must not be vulnerable to TOC-
              TOU race attacks.

       o      Disable  command  options  processing  for all command arguments
              that contain user-specified data. For example, the Postfix send-
              mail(1) command line MUST be structured as follows:

                  /path/to/sendmail system-arguments -- user-arguments

              Here,  the  "--"  disables  command  option  processing  for all
              user-arguments that follow.

              Without the "--", a malicious user could  enable  Postfix  send-
              mail(1)  command  options,  by  specifying an email address that
              starts with "-".

       Problems are logged to syslogd(8) or postlogd(8), and to  the  standard
       error stream.

              Directory with Postfix configuration files.

       MAIL_VERBOSE (value does not matter)
              Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes.

       MAIL_DEBUG (value does not matter)
              Enable debugging with an external command, as specified with the
              debugger_command configuration parameter.

       NAME   The sender full name. This is used only with messages that  have
              no From: message header. See also the -F option above.

       The  following parameters are especially relevant to this pro-
       gram.  The text below provides only  a  parameter  summary.  See  post-
       conf(5) for more details including examples.

       Available with Postfix 2.9 and later:

       sendmail_fix_line_endings (always)
              Controls how the Postfix sendmail command converts email message
              line endings from <CR><LF> into UNIX format (<LF>).

       The DEBUG_README file gives examples of how to troubleshoot  a  Postfix

       debugger_command (empty)
              The external command to execute when a Postfix daemon program is
              invoked with the -D option.

       debug_peer_level (2)
              The increment in verbose logging level when a  nexthop  destina-
              tion,  remote client or server name or network address matches a
              pattern given with the debug_peer_list parameter.

       debug_peer_list (empty)
              Optional list of nexthop destination, remote  client  or  server
              name  or  network  address  patterns that, if matched, cause the
              verbose logging level to increase by  the  amount  specified  in

       Available in Postfix version 2.2 and later:

       authorized_flush_users (static:anyone)
              List of users who are authorized to flush the queue.

       authorized_mailq_users (static:anyone)
              List of users who are authorized to view the queue.

       authorized_submit_users (static:anyone)
              List  of  users who are authorized to submit mail with the send-
              mail(1) command (and with the privileged postdrop(1) helper com-

       bounce_size_limit (50000)
              The  maximal  amount  of original message text that is sent in a
              non-delivery notification.

       fork_attempts (5)
              The maximal number of attempts to fork() a child process.

       fork_delay (1s)
              The delay between attempts to fork() a child process.

       hopcount_limit (50)
              The maximal number of Received:  message headers that is allowed
              in the primary message headers.

       queue_run_delay (300s)
              The  time  between  deferred  queue  scans by the queue manager;
              prior to Postfix 2.4 the default value was 1000s.

       The ETRN_README file describes configuration and operation details  for
       the Postfix "fast flush" service.

       fast_flush_domains ($relay_domains)
              Optional list of destinations that are eligible for per-destina-
              tion logfiles with mail that is queued to those destinations.

       The VERP_README file describes configuration and operation  details  of
       Postfix support for variable envelope return path addresses.

       default_verp_delimiters (+=)
              The two default VERP delimiter characters.

       verp_delimiter_filter (-=+)
              The  characters  Postfix accepts as VERP delimiter characters on
              the Postfix sendmail(1) command line and in SMTP commands.

       alias_database (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The alias databases for local(8) delivery that are updated  with
              "newaliases" or with "sendmail -bi".

       command_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of all postfix administrative commands.

       config_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  default  location of the Postfix and con-
              figuration files.

       daemon_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The directory with Postfix support programs and daemon programs.

       default_database_type (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The default database type for use in newaliases(1), postalias(1)
              and postmap(1) commands.

       delay_warning_time (0h)
              The time after which the sender receives a copy of  the  message
              headers of mail that is still queued.

       import_environment (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  list  of  environment  variables  that a privileged Postfix
              process will  import  from  a  non-Postfix  parent  process,  or
              name=value environment overrides.

       mail_owner (postfix)
              The  UNIX  system  account  that owns the Postfix queue and most
              Postfix daemon processes.

       queue_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of the Postfix top-level queue directory.

       remote_header_rewrite_domain (empty)
              Rewrite or add message headers in mail from  remote  clients  if
              the  remote_header_rewrite_domain  parameter value is non-empty,
              updating incomplete addresses with the domain specified  in  the
              remote_header_rewrite_domain parameter, and adding missing head-

       syslog_facility (mail)
              The syslog facility of Postfix logging.

       syslog_name (see 'postconf -d' output)
              A prefix that  is  prepended  to  the  process  name  in  syslog
              records, so that, for example, "smtpd" becomes "prefix/smtpd".

       Postfix 3.2 and later:

       alternate_config_directories (empty)
              A list of non-default Postfix configuration directories that may
              be specified with "-c config_directory" on the command line  (in
              the  case  of  sendmail(1),  with  the  "-C" option), or via the
              MAIL_CONFIG environment parameter.

       multi_instance_directories (empty)
              An optional list of non-default Postfix  configuration  directo-
              ries;  these  directories belong to additional Postfix instances
              that share the Postfix executable files and  documentation  with
              the  default  Postfix  instance,  and that are started, stopped,
              etc., together with the default Postfix instance.

       /var/spool/postfix, mail queue
       /etc/postfix, configuration files

       pickup(8), mail pickup daemon
       qmgr(8), queue manager
       smtpd(8), SMTP server
       flush(8), fast flush service
       postsuper(1), queue maintenance
       postalias(1), create/update/query alias database
       postdrop(1), mail posting utility
       postfix(1), mail system control
       postqueue(1), mail queue control
       postlogd(8), Postfix logging
       syslogd(8), system logging

       Use "postconf readme_directory" or "postconf html_directory" to  locate
       this information.
       DEBUG_README, Postfix debugging howto
       ETRN_README, Postfix ETRN howto
       VERP_README, Postfix VERP howto

       The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.

       Wietse Venema
       IBM T.J. Watson Research
       P.O. Box 704
       Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA

       Wietse Venema
       Google, Inc.
       111 8th Avenue
       New York, NY 10011, USA